Interventional radiology uses minimally invasive, image-guided procedures to treat and diagnose diseases in any system of the body. The range of diseases and the organs amenable to image-guided procedures mainly involve gastrointestinal, vascular, hepatobiliary, pulmonary, genitourinary, and the central nervous system. The therapeutic interventional radiology procedures include fallopian tube recanalization, thrombolysis, percutaneous angioplasty, percutaneous gastronomy and nephrostomy, laser ablation, embolization, endovascular embolisation, pain relief techniques, carotid scan, aortic scan, and peripheral arterial doppler scan.
India is considered as one of the global Medical Tourism hubs. Most of the people from other countries prefer India as the destination for healthcare requirements. The hospitals in India offer a broad range of interventional radiology procedures at affordable costs with qualitative care. The interventional radiological procedures in India are most likely lower than in other countries. For example, the cost of angioplasty in India is about $6000, where as in Great Britain the cost may reach up to $25,000.
Coil embolisation is used to treat an aneurysm. It is a minimally-invasive procedure that involves deposition of soft platinum coils in the aneurysm through a microcatheter. The procedure prevents rupturing and bleeding of the aneurysm.
Liberation therapy is mostly indicated for the patients with multiple sclerosis. The liberation treatment involves expanding the narrowed and abnormal veins with a balloon-like device and this increases the blood flow and reduces the appearance of the lesions.
This procedure is used to treat peripheral artery disease. Angioplasty is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves inserting a thin, flexible tube through the artery and guided to the area where there is blockage or obstruction.
Renal angiogram is an imaging test that provides a detailed view of blood vessels in the kidneys. The procedure involves injecting a contrast dye into the artery through a catheter and then X-rays were taken to view the blood flow in the arteries.
Imaging Modalities Used in Interventional Radiology
Interventional radiology (IR) is a sub-specialty of radiology and involves minimally invasive mode of diagnosis and treatment. The aim is to use a minimally invasive technique so that the risk is minimal and the patient outcomes are better.
Many conventional surgeries are now obsolete and have been replaced by minimally invasive techniques, all with the help of interventional radiology. The common imaging modalities used in interventional radiology are:
Fluoroscopy - It uses ionizing radiation. The technique is fast and provides geometrically accurate images.
Computed tomography (CT) - CT scans are widely used in diagnosis and treatment. This technique also uses ionizing radiation.
Ultrasound (US) - It is used to guide needles during vascular access and drainage procedures.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – It provides a better tissue contrast, but is expensive and requires expertise in handling.