Sigmoidoscopy is a procedure to look inside the sigmoid colon by using a flexible tube with a light on it. The sigmoid colon is the third last area of your descending colon of the large intestine nearest to the rectum.

Sigmoidoscopy indications can be different colon diseases and disorders such as changes in your bowel habits, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, unexplained weight loss and suspecting of colon cancer. Your doctor will tell you about sigmoidoscopy preparation. You have to follow a clear liquid diet for one to three days before the procedure. An hour before the procedure, an enema will be used to empty your bowels.

Sigmoidoscopy procedure may be done under a sedative, so it will not be painful. Your colon will be inflated with some air to make it easier to examine. Then a sigmoidoscope will be inserted into your anus, which transmits the image on a monitor to examine. Sigmoidoscopy results can be discussed right after the procedure.

The sigmoidoscopy does not have any associated risks, but there are possibilities of a tear in the colon or the wall of the rectum on rare occasions. Sigmoidoscopy side effects include pain and bleeding, which may occur if the tissue sample was taken.

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